Peter's stuff

Latest updates: (see below for update dates) Squeezebox Server/SqueezeCenter plugin info (12 Jan 2010) info about PDA Transcode script (7 Nov 2006) running Ubuntu on a Compaq V2000 laptop (28 Mar 2006) script to scan for HDTV channels updated (19 Jan 2006) script for mass-ripping MP3s from CDs

as we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of ours; and this we should do freely and generously.

-attributed to Benjamin Franklin

Transcoding MythTV recordings for PDAs and Sony PSP

Jeff Volckaert created a shell script for transcoding MythTV recordings to a format that can be viewed on portable devices like Sony PSPs and PDAs running PalmOS or Windows Mobile. I wrote a Perl script that extends Jeff's ideas. You can read about the script on the MythTV wiki and view or download the script here.

Finding cable HDTV channels

I recently built a new MythTV system for recording television and watching HDTV. Recording analog television with Hauppauge PVR-x50 cards using a cable feed is easy in MythTV 0.19, and was easy in MythTV 0.18.1, too. Over-The-Air (ATSC) HDTV is also easy. But cable (QAM) HDTV has not been so easy to set up with my HD3000 ATSC/QAM HDTV tuner card. There's a wiki page that explains how to scan for QAM channels and create a "channels.conf" file. The steps seemed ripe for scripting, so I made a script called qamscan.sh to automate the process. Since my card found *hundreds* of channels from my provider, I've updated this script (as of 25 March 2006) to automate testing the channels completely. Older versions would try to spawn mplayer and relied on the user to manually kill mplayer and decide if the channel was OK, but this one uses console output from mplayer to determine which channels can be tuned & decoded. I'm still facing over 30 minutes to test the 246 QAM channels my cable provider has, but it's much nicer knowing the script can determine which channels are OK.

Note about kernel settings: On my system, the act of displaying a tuned channel in mplayer would seem to trigger a permanent increase in the kernel's VmallocUsed (see /proc/meminfo). My Fedora Core 4 system only had about 30mb of free Vmalloc space after booting, and running this script against my full 'atscscan' output (after booting with vmalloc=500m) brought my VmallocUsed up over 400mb. Adding more complexity, in order to add "vmalloc=500m" to my grub.conf, I also had to add a line in the grub stanza reading "uppermem 524288" -- a bug in the FC4 grub package; quick web searching will turn up details if you're curious.

Ripping MP3s from CDs: autorip

autorip is a Perl script for ripping MP3s from music CDs. It pulls information from CDDB/Freedb servers and requires no user intervention. It's even suitable for use on "headless" systems like MythTV PVRs.

Running Linux on a Compaq Presario V2000

In Dec 2005 I acquired a Compaq Presario V2000 to use as a personal computer, which means running Linux. I've documented my installation and setup process (and distro rationale) for use in the Linux-laptop.net directory. That information on my experience, including upgrading Ubuntu 5.10 to Ubuntu 6.06 LTS, is here.

find-upgrade-orphans.sh upgrade script

Many people make different partitions for their Linux systems, for instance putting /home on its own partition so that it can be left untouched when installing a new version of Linux. Some partitions really ought to be reformatted when installing a new version of Linux. This shell script helps you identify filesystem assets that you probably want to back up before reformatting & installing a new Linux distribution.

Squeezebox Server/SqueezeCenter/SlimServer plugins

To play MP3s and web music streams, I've been using Squeezebox Server, a GPL'ed streaming music system from SlimDevices. Squeezebox Server is designed to serve music streams to SlimDevices' "Squeezebox" music player which networks with ethernet or 802.11g or 802.11b. The Squeezebox hooks into a standard stereo setup, and is a respectable audio component. I have written a few plugins for Squeezebox Server (note: the previous versions of Squeezebox Server were known as SqueezeCenter and SlimServer):

AllQuiet
v2.1.12, 2009/09/24
Silence all players simply by holding the Sleep button; all players will display the name of the player that asked for silence, in case you need help. Also provides a CLI command to silence/pause all players and display a custom message. (Boom, Transporter, Classic, Squeezebox1, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze)

Auto Dim Display
v2.1.10, 2009/09/22
Set automatic display dimming, as for making the display go dark at bedtime and become visible again in the morning. (modified version of code from Eric Koldinger, koldware.com). Will use FuzzyTime "displayed time" if FuzzyTime is installed (optional). (Boom, Transporter, Classic, Squeezebox1, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze)

BlankSaver
v2.1.6, 2009/09/22
Screensaver that simply makes the screen go dark -- most useful with SaverSwitcher, providing an easy way to make the display go dark without having to cycle through all brightness options. (Boom, Classic, Squeezebox1, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze)

ContextMenu
v2.1.25, 2009/09/23
ContextMenu provides a mechanism for context menus much like the right-click context menus provided by computer operating system desktop environments. Provides a way to use any regular Squeezebox remote control button, even on the Boom. Other plugins that provide ContextMenu options include AllQuiet, KitchenTimer, PlayLog, and SaverSwitcher. (Boom, Transporter, Classic, Squeezebox1, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze)

DenonSerial
v0.1.37, 2011/01/11
For Squeezeboxes connected to Denon receivers with RS232 or Ethernet interfaces, use your Squeezebox Controller, Squeezebox IR remote control, Web interface, etc. to control your Denon volume. (Transporter, Classic, Receiver)

FuzzyTime
v2.1.11, 2009/09/22
Provides a "date and time" screensaver that can act like a clock set "ahead" of the real time, and allows other plugins to display such "fast" times and set timers based on such displayed time. (Boom, Transporter, Classic, Squeezebox1, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze)

KidsPlay
v2.6.2, 2010/12/26
Have SqueezeCenter execute specific sets of commands for certain buttons, so you can give a child a remote control with limited function, or redefine Boom or Radio 1-6 preset buttons or the button on a Squeezebox Receiver. (Boom, Classic, Radio, Receiver, Slimp3, Squeezebox1, Transporter)

KitchenTimer
v2.1.27, 2009/09/27
This plugin allows you to set simple countdown timers. Timers can be given names and saved for later re-use. Timers can be shortened or extended if needed. Includes a countdown screensaver designed for use with SaverSwitcher (only displayed if there's an active timer). (Boom, Transporter, Classic, Squeezebox1, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze)

PlayLog
v2.1.40, 2009/09/28
This plugin allows you you to log the tracks you listen to, either automatically or by pressing a few remote control buttons. It provides a web interface for viewing its log, linking to the web for more information about what you've listened to, and downloading XML and M3U playlists of played songs. (Boom, Classic, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze, Squeezebox1, Transporter; limited support for Radio, Receiver, and Touch)

PowerCenter
v2.2.0, 2009/09/29
Control X-10 and Insteon modules with a Squeezebox Controller, Radio, Touch, old-style infrared remote, or Boom or Transporter buttons. Use Insteon or X-10 to have a device turn on and off when a specific player is turned on or off. Turn a coffee pot on when an alarm sounds. (Boom, Classic, Controller, Radio, Receiver, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze, Squeezebox1, Touch, Transporter)

SaverSwitcher
v2.1.30, 2009/09/27
Configure multiple screensavers for the When Off, When Playing, and When Idle modes, either having SqueezeCenter cycle through a number of plugins or allowing you to change screensavers with a single button press. Easily change screensavers, or immediately jump to the When Playing screensaver, if used with ContextMenu. Can display "conditional" screensavers, as with KitchenTimer (set a screensaver to display onlly if it has something to report). (Boom, Transporter, Classic, Squeezebox1, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze)

SettingsManager
v2.1.15, 2009/09/28
Provides a Web interface for copying settings from one player to another, permanently "linking" settings on multiple Squeezeboxes, setting defaults for newly connected Squeezeboxes or remote /stream.mp3 clients, and importing/exporting client settings, to make it easier to manage multiple Squeezebox players. (Boom, Classic, Receiver, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze, Squeezebox1, Transporter)

SleepFade
v2.2.1, 2009/10/20
Allows the "sleep" mode for any given player to fade the music out over the entire sleep period, rather than playing at a constant volume until the last minute. (Boom, Classic, Radio, Receiver, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze, Squeezebox1, Touch, Transporter)

StatusFirst
v2.1.5, 2009/09/27
Allows you to configure each player so it will display the current setting when you use the Sleep, Shuffle, Repeat, or volume keys on its remote control once, and only change the setting on subsequent button presses. Volume key behavio change does not work on Radio or Touch. (Boom, Classic, Radio, Slimp3, Squeezebox1, Touch, Transporter)

SyncOptions
v2.2.0, 2010/03/15
Gives new settings for synchronizing players: relative volume sync; "wait for next track" to avoid disruptions; "unsync at power off"; restore local playlist after leaving a sync group. (Boom, Classic, Radio, Receiver, Squeezebox1, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze, Touch, Transporter)

VolumeLock
v2.1.15, 2009/09/27
Allows you to lock the analog and digital output levels of any Squeezebox, Transporter, or SliMP3. Can either prevent any changes in volume, or simply set a maximum volume. (Boom, Classic, Radio, Receiver, Slimp3, SoftSqueeze, Squeezebox1, Touch, Transporter)

Plugins I'd like to write, if I had time...

JumpSkip
Programatically alter the behavior of the Forward and Reverse keys. If you're listening to a playlist composed of one file, then Forward (and, to a lesser degree, Reverse) don't make much sense. Normally when I'm listening to one file, it's a long podcast download, and I'd prefer that Forward and Reverse behave more like DVR keys -- Forward jumping about 30 seconds forward, and Reverse jumping about 10 seconds back. Users should be able to configure the forward & reverse time values. Perhaps also add a "minimum length" config option so that this DVR-like behavior would only be used in relatively long tracks. Perhaps another option to be active for all tracks: you can always skip forward or back with "Now Playing" + Up or Down + Play.

Using DMPS/Energy Star to shut down your monitor (when you're not logged in)

Newer Linux distros have good DPMS / Energy Start support. You can configure them to tell your monitor to go to power down after some period of time so you don't waste energy & light on keeping your screensaver visible. This is espcially important with LCD displays, whose MTBF service lifespan is much shorter than old CRT monitors. I was happy to see good DPMS support when logged in to Mandrake 9.1, but disappointed to see that there was no obvious way to tweak the DPMS power saving options when I was logged out (that is, when X was running and displaying an xdm/gdm/kdm login screen). In Mandrake 10.1, the process is simpler. Put the following /etc/X11/xsetup.d/, give it a name ending in ".xsetup" (I chose "dpms.xsetup"), and make it executable:

if [ -x /usr/X11R6/bin/xset ]; then
    # shut down the screen after 10 minutes
    /usr/X11R6/bin/xset dpms 0 0 600
fi

Here's how I configured my Mandrake 9.1 machine to shut the monitor down after 10 minutes of idle time at the login prompt. First, I chose to use the 'gdm' display manager, as it was easiest to figure out, and I like its features (e.g. being able to select a language at login time, just like the old SunOS systems I've used in the past). Second, I had to modify one gdm config script. Here's the diff:

RCS  /etc/X11/gdm/Init/RCS/Default,v
retrieving revision 1.1
diff -u -r1.1 /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default
--- /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default   2003/12/17 03:59:11     1.1
+++ /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default   2003/12/17 04:03:53
@@ -4,4 +4,9 @@
     /etc/X11/xinit/fixkeyboard
 fi

+if [ -x /usr/X11R6/bin/xset ]; then
+    # shut down the screen after 10 minutes
+    /usr/X11R6/bin/xset dpms 0 0 600
+fi
+
 exit 0

Privacy

User-stored verifiable personal information (17 July 2001)

In May I wrote a longish email to a mailing list about how technology could be used to handle several modern problems: better identification without relinquishing anonymity needlessly; giving users better control over dissemination of personal information; more secure/trustworthy validation of "identification cards". Read it in ugly text-only format here.

Web stuff

Cross-Site Request Forgeries (CSRF) (15 Jun 2001)

I have uploaded a message sent to Bugtraq that describes a class of Web attacks I call "sea surf" (CSRF). Something of a cross between "web bugs" and Cross-Site Scripting (XSS), Web applications that lack good CSRF countermeasures can be made to take actions on your behalf, without your consent or knowledge, if the attacker can simply get you to open an HTML document. No Javascript is required for this class of attacks.

ISP Web publishing permissions script (ancient!)

My old ISP used your regular home directory to store Web content. That meant FTP'ing new files would result in the wrong UNIX permissions. So I wrote an ugly shell script to automate the chmod's. Check it out here.

Linux / open systems stuff

"Enigma" disk-cleaning tool

This is a modification of Lehi Davis' enigma disk which uses a Tinfoil Hat Linux floppy distro as the basis for a boot floppy that can be used to wipe out entire IDE and SCSI hard drives. I use this tool to more thoroughly delete data from hard drives that I'm about to replace/sell/discard/donate. For more info on why I'd bother, see this story about the data researchers found on used hard drives they purchased: "formatting" the drive is not good enough.

Lehi's tool is cool but scary: boot the machine, and it automatically wipes out all the hard drives it finds 15 seconds later. I modified Lehi's rcS startup script so that it is interactive: the floppy will find each IDE and SCSI disk that looks real, and ask you if you want to wipe out the disk. First it asks about entire disks; if you answer that you don't want to wipe out an entire disk, it will search for partitions on that disk and ask about each in turn. The data destruction does not take place until after the disk/partion discovery & interaction phase (which is good, because the "wipe" tool the floppy uses is slow -- about 12 hours to wipe a singel 30 GB IDE disk on a P4 1.8 GHz laptop). Caveat: this floppy won't ask about a drive if there's no corresonding, working /dev/h[sd]? entry. It won't ask about any partition unless there's a corresponding /dev/h[sd]??* device entry. Download my modified floppy image here: enigma.img.gz.

Typing international characters in X

Here is my ~/.xmodmaprc file which I use to make it easy to enter international characters in X. It's well commented (I hope). I much prefer this to the "international" keyboard behavior of, say, Microsoft Windows or even some Linux distributions. The primary benefit of the xmodmap approach (in my opinion) is that my xmodmap file makes it very easy to type chracters in your preferred international language without making it awkward to use common characters like ', ", and , itself.

Linux firewall scripts (updated 22 Aug 2001)

One of the nice things about using Linux on the Internet is that Linux includes very powerful built-in firewall/packet-filtering code. So you can set up your own rules to help protect your machine from black hats on the Internet.

My scripts support ipchains on kernel 2.2 and 2.4, and iptables/netfilter on 2.4 There's a central configuration file (/etc/Bastille/bastille-firewall.cfg) that sets policies which either script will implement. Yes, you can reboot into different kernels, and it will automatically use the proper tools. The iptables/netfilter code also is designed to minimize problems you might encounter if you have enough connections to fill your "conntrack" state tables.

The Bastille-Linux hardening system uses my scripts, but normally the ones you find here are more current. If you don't want to run all of Bastille, or want to be sure you have the latest firewall code, look at the latest firewall code tarballs in http://www.tux.org/~peterw/linux/.

As of 29 Jan 2000, the firewall code on Tux.org is being released in gzipped tarballs, as it involves multiple files. Versions 0.98beta6 and newer have improvements for Red Hat systems if installed properly -- the firewall will reevaluate its rules when you activate an interface, for better security. Users of other distributions please contact me if you have information on enabling similar functionality in your distribution. Thanks!

Securing Linux for IP networking (26 June 2000)

On April 19th, I spoke at the monthly DCLUG meeting about network security threats, and laid out an introduction to tcpd and ipchains. My unadulterated (nice way of saying not cleaned up) speaker's notes are available in PostScript format for printing or viewing with 'gv'.

bastille-tmpdir.sh TMPDIR script (updated 11 June 2003)

There's been a lot of talk on Bugtraq from time to time about applications that use /tmp in unsafe ways. Many of these apps can be made safe by setting the environment variables TMP and/or TMPDIR to point to a directory that only your user account can write to. Months ago, I wrote a script called bastille-tmpdir.sh that was designed to go inside /etc/profile.d (to be called by /etc/bashrc) to create an appropriate directory and set the environment variables when a user logs in. The latest version is more sophisticated. Particularly nice is the fact that it creates the directories inside /tmp (by default) where they will normally be pruned by reboots or housecleaning cron jobs. Also it's designed to work better in environments where home directories may be on central fileservers and users would want temp space on the local workstation.

You can get a compressed tarball of the latest code from http://www.tux.org/~peterw/linux/. The tarball now includes an install/upgrade script that will put the scripts in the proper location (assuming your distro supports /etc/profile.d scripts!) and migrate your current settings if you have an earlier vresion of the scripts installed.

"Run As" script, aka "runxas" (updated 10 Jan 2001)

'sudo' and 'su' make it fairly easy to run command line apps as another user. But X apps are more difficult, particularly with regard to limiting aan application's access to X resources that it has no business messing with. My runxas Bash shell script uses SSH, xauth, and Xnest to start up an X environment that you can run apps in as a different user. This will allow you, for instance, to run a Web browser in something of a "sandbox", where it cannot access your important files or interfere with other X applications. Important notes

LDIF -> Pine .addressbook converter (8 Nov 1999)

A simple little script that converts a Netscape Address Book export (LDIF) file to Pine's ~/.addressbook format.

Script for chroot'ed FTP users (31 Aug 1999)

A friend of mine wanted to set up some user accounts for Web publishing. He wanted to restrict the users to their own home directories. With wu-ftpd and some tweaks to /etc/ftpaccess, this script can make it easier to set up individual users for chroot'ed FTP access.

"pidd" process daemon (1 Aug 1999)

A proof-of-concept Perl script for monitoring the number of free PID slots, and reacting to changes in the size of free space in the process table. The package includes sample reaction scripts that can initiate and revoke firewall rules, and send emails in response to changes.

pdfchoice.tk helper for Netscape (1 Aug 1999)

This script is designed to help you view PDF files from the Web. Since you don't always want to use the same app for viewing PDF's (for instance, you'd probably rather run 'xpdf' than Acrobat if you could, as it's smaller and faster), this small Tcl/Tk app lets you choose which PDF viewer to use. In Netscape's Preferences -> Navigator -> Applications, under the PDF setting, you'd use something like /usr/local/bin/pdfchoice.tk %s to have Netscape use this app.

Red Hat network interface policies (14 July 1998)

But what you really want to use is the Red Hat 'linuxconf' utility to set up a ppp0 interface. One problem with the Red Hat setup is you have to choose whether only root can (de)activate the interface or any user. I have devised modifications to "ifup" and "ifdown" that allow system administrators to easily add their own policies for each interface. E.G. only allow users in certain groups. Or ones logged into certain tty's, etc. Take a look: http://www.tux.org/~peterw/linux/ppp/

OS/2 stuff

Not really. Call this the "bailing out" OS/2 stuff. I really like OS/2. The interface, especially with Stardock's Object Desktop beats everything else hands-down. We won't see anything like Work Place Shell for years, and that's a shame. Anyway, one of the biggest problems was moving frol from PMMail.

So how to switch? Well, if you have Perl and Linux, you can use this script (together with this one) to convert a mounted OS/2 partition's PMMail 1.91 folders to Netscape 4 / Unix mbox style. Also with this other script you can convert PMMail's ADDR.DB address book to an LDIF file for importing into Netscape 4.
Notes:

  1. At first it seemed that Netscape could tell what messages had been read when I created new "nsmail" folders with the first script. Not any more. Anyone have clues?
  2. The address book conversion makes best guesses on first and last names and does not handle "note" fields (mostly because it was not apparent to me how this was represented in LDIF, but also because I don't use the note fields).
  3. The PMMail filters would probably be a real hassle to convert. Good luck.

HP Palmtop

I checked out a bunch of of palmtops before settling on the HP 200LX. While it's a great machine, I must confess lately I've been seriously considering a Palm device...

Palmtop News Reader

"PNR" is an excellent app for offline email and USENET browsing. Connect to a UNIX shell, run a script to make some UQWK packets, download, and go. Read, reply, and post on the road. Reconnect, upload some files, run another script, and you're done. Minimum on-line time, maximum portability. I took the fetch script from the distribution and modified it more to my liking. Especially improving it ability to deal with newsgroups. Here, take it. 

Currency conversion macro generator

The HP has a nice 21-entry currency converter function in the built-in calculator. While this is cool, it's a hassle to update the values manually. Quite a while ago, H. Shrikumar wrote a nice Perl script for converting some data from a Web site run by GNN. Shrikumar's script created an HP macro that would open the calculator and update all 21 currencies. In the fall of 1996, AOL dropped GNN and the data disappeared however. So to keep my HP up to date and teach myself a little Perl, I wrote a new script that does pretty much the same thing as Shrikumar's with a big difference: it's a Web application. You can pick your own 21 currencies in the order you want and it'll build a custom macro on the fly. Best of all, Mitch Hamm was able to get permission from the Bank of Montreal to use their data, which is updated every weekday. Very cool. Thanks, BMO! 

Anyhow, the application is on the Palmtop Network site, specifically, http://www.palmtop.net/money.html 

LXFileman and LXTOOLS

LXFileman is a recent project to teach myself the Tcl programming language. It's a graphical front end to Andreas Garzotto's LXTOOLS package. Andreas' programs let you move files between the palmtop and your UNIX workstation. You can get the latest version here. Take the script, the lxtools package, or just look at the Changelog to see if I've done anything lately. Once it's released, you can bet it will be available at the S.U.P.E.R. site

Free Software

All the scripts I've made available here are released freely under the GNU General Public License. Use it (even on Unix systems from litigious bastards like SCO). Break it. Fix it. Have fun. 

 

"runxas" notes:
Please note that, while 'runxas' is well-suited for running apps as a less-privileged user, it is not suitable for running apps as a more-privileged user. This is because the "parent" X window can snoop on the runxas-spawned "child" (the Xnest window is, after all, an X app running in the parent window). But the applications inside the Xnest window cannot snoop on the applications running outside Xnest, in the parent window. To see how easy X snooping is (especially keyboard snooping), look for Dominic Giampaolo's "xkey.c" demonstration program. You can also illustrate this by starting the "xeyes" program both inside the Xnest window and outside the window. Move the pointer inside the Xnest window, and both pairs of eyeballs will track it. Move the mouse outside the Xnest window, and the Xnest eyeballs will no longer track the pointer.

It is possible to prevent other X applications from snooping on your keystrokes in applications like xterm that offer a "Secure Keyboard" option. But note that a parent X window can always snoop on a runxas-spawned child, even when using the "Secure Keyboard" option within the Xnest window. If you play with runxas, Secure Keyboard, and xkey or xeyes, you should get a good feel for some of the limitations of the X window system's security mechanisms.

Base page modified on $Date: 2010/12/27 04:52:39 $